A Selected Resource List
Note: This is a two-part compilation of information resources on client education and case management dating back to 1987. Many materials are available from the Clearinghouse; for information on availability call (406) 494-8662.
Part One: Client Education
Alliance to Save Energy. Energy Education On the Move: A National Energy Education Survey and Case,Studies of Outstanding Programs, 1992. A survey of 2,000 individuals and organizations involved in energy education (not necessarily low income) yielded 195 programs funded by utilities, public private partnerships, states, and the Weatherization Assistance Program and LIHEAP. Twelve programs, including four specifically targeted at low income, are described in detail.
Alliance to Save Energy. Evaluating Consumer Energy Education: A Field Test of Three Education Packages in Support of a Residential Conservation and Load-Shifting Program, April 1991. Provides guidance to state, local, and utility weatherization program officials about effective education techniques for low-income weatherization projects. Concludes that the effectiveness of low-income weatherization can be improved by educating clients to take actions to control and reduce their energy consumption.
Alliance to Save Energy. Putting it All Together, March 1990. A resource guide for coordinated state/utility low-income energy programs that a variety of client services besides energy payments. It includes profiles of six state/utility programs.
Alliance to Save Energy. Index of Joint State-Utility Energy Programs, April 1990. Discusses 77 energy efficiency, energy assistance and efficiency research projects jointly operated by states and utilities nationwide.
Blasnik, Michael and GRASP. Impact Evaluation of the Residential Electricity Conservation Pilot, Final Report, January 1994, prepared for Energy Coordinating Agency, summarizes savings from an electricity end use reduction pilot that included client education.
Center for Economics Research, Research Triangle Institute, for Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. Impact Evaluation Study for NMPC's Power Partnership Program, February 1994. An impact evaluation of the first year of a comprehensive energy efficiency program, including client education, offering up to two education sessions and serving about 700 households per year. The evaluation does not directly attribute savings to education, but does note that most savings are attributed to weatherization measures including "the savings from setback thermostats which incorporate behavior modifications from the education sessions."
Center for Energy and the Urban Environment. National Energy Education Low Income Programs, 1992. A catalog summarizing 38 energy conservation programs aimed specifically at low-income households; lists components of each program such as fuel type, target group, special needs customers, housing type, program features, financial incentives, program evaluations, status.
Center for Energy and the Urban Environment. A Comprehensive Approach to Energy Services, Minneapolis Community Action Agency (MCAA), 1990. A comprehensive energy services manual of MCAA's approach to coordinated energy services, a description of the overall process of a comprehensive approach to intake, outreach, weatherization and follow-up, with examples of support materials.
Center for Energy and the Urban Environment, with the Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota. The MWX90 Protocol: A Model Minnesota Low-Income Weatherization Program for the 1990s Training Manual, Volume 1, Client Education, 1991. A resource for the client education training of intake workers, auditors, crews and inspectors based on the state's M200 project, which set new weatherization standards for the state.
Center for Energy and the Urban Environment. Project CHOICE Report, 1988. A report that details components of the Project CHOICE program, which includes education, low-cost weatherization, major weatherization (insulation, furnace repair), and budget payment plans and counseling for a total approach to energy conservation.
Chalfen, Sam, and Energy Coordinating Agency. Residential Electricity Conservation Pilot Refrigerator Replacement, Relamping and Energy Education Process Evaluation, August 1992. Describes a pilot that sought electricity savings through selected refrigerator and lighting replacements and energy education.
Coltrane, S., Archer, D. and Aronson, E. "Smart Programs: The Social-Psychological Foundations of Successful Energy Conservation Delivery Systems," 1986 ACEEE Summer Study of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Recommends program elements for incorporating social-psychological principles or communication techniques into energy conservation program designs to improve programs.
Community Action Team, Inc. St. Helens, Oregon. "North Coast Energy Counseling Pilot Project Final Report," 1991; and "Follow-up Report: Long-Term Impact," 1992. Summarizes the initial pilot, a comprehensive weatherization and education/ case management program, and a follow-up study two years later to determine if energy savings continued. Although attrition of participating households was significant, the follow-up report concluded that energy education/case management has a significant, long-term (minimum two years) impact on household energy consumption, greater than the impact of weatherization alone.
Copp, C. Consumer Education and Weatherization for Low-Income Households. The Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, 1988. Contains a chapter on energy conservation education for low-income households that focuses on understanding the client's energy usage, and reviews three successful education programs in Philadelphia, Minneapolis, and California.
Cornwall, Bonnie. and Duerr, Mark. "Low-Income Energy Education: Is It an Effective Adjunct to Traditional ECIP and Weatherization Services," 1986 ACEEE Summer Study of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Reviews public education programs from 1983 to 1985 by six different community-based organization as demonstrations for the California Energy Extension Service and the Department of Economic Opportunity. Energy consumption data and changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior for target and comparison groups are reviewed to determine which strategies lead to reduced energy consumption.
Community Awareness Program, East Central Oregon. Responsible Energy Awareness Learning and Living Final Report, 1990. An energy education partnership program that utilized one-on-one pre- and post-weatherization client training.
Economic Opportunity Research Institute. Assurance 16 Services in FY 1995 and FY 1996: Outcomes for Measuring the Results of LIHEAP Services. May 1997. Describes pilots in Maryland, Washington, New Hampshire and Texas that used LIHEAP Assurance 16 funds to conduct and measure outcomes of self-sufficiency, energy education and/or family case management activities.
Esposito, Bonnie. Client Education: Hi Level Weatherization Demonstration Project, Minneapolis Energy Office, 1988. A workbook prepared for the Department of Jobs and Training that presents guidelines, tips, and examples to follow for energy conservation client education.
Financial Energy Management. Final Report: Improving Energy Efficiency in Public Housing -- A Colorado Field Experiment, 1994. This study for the Denver Support Office, U.S. DOE, was to determine the impact of energy improvements and tenant education in multi-unit HUD-managed housing in Colorado. Contains a thorough analysis of pre and post treatment consumption patters for electricity, gas and water, plus extensive appendices with household interview forms and results, education materials.
Gregory, Judith. Ohio Home Weatherization Assistance Program Client Education Pilot Program: Consumer Education in the Ohio Pilot Program, 1992. Targeted recipients of a WAP client education pilot, measured the impact of education on energy savings and assessed its cost effectiveness. One group of 296 households received weatherization and in-home education; a second group of 301 households received weatherization only. The first group had gas savings of 21 percent; the second group had gas savings of 14.3 percent. Energy savings of 6.7 percent were attributed to the education program. Contains a detailed description of the pilot, including program design and in-home education activity.
Gregory, Judy and Nelson, Lisa. Ohio Home Weatherization Assistance Program. An Evaluation of the 1989 Client Education Units, 1992. Analyzes the first full year operation (1989) of Ohio's client education program, which was modified based on the results of above-mentioned pilot. Comparing a group of households that received education and weatherization against a group that received weatherization only, the first group experienced an average of 21.3 percent reduction in gas consumption; the second had an average reduction of 18.3 percent in gas consumption. Education accounted for a 3 percent difference in gas fuel savings. The cost of providing weatherization and education was $1,806 per household resulting in a simple payback of 7.8 years; providing weatherization only cost $1,784, with a payback of 8.6 years.
Haeri, M.H. and Jennings, J. "Towards an Optimal Mechanism for the Delivery of Low-Income Residential DSM Services," 1990 ACEEE Summer Study of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Discusses three pilot projects of Pacific Gas and Electric aimed at improving the quality and cost effectiveness of low-income weatherization services, including client education.
Harrigan, Merrilee, and Belshe, Rana. "Moving Customers to Choose Energy Efficiency," March 1994. An update of a previous paper that examines limitations of present educational programs, discusses those that work, lists sector-specific recommendations for developing more effective and targeted education programs. Revised and updated for 1994 Affordable Comfort Conference.
Harrigan, Merrilee and Alliance to Save Energy, and Gregroy, Judith, Applied Energy Research. Do Savings from Energy Education Persist? 1995. This report provides the first thorough comparison of energy savings from energy efficiency education plus weatherization (through the Niagara Mohawk Power Partnerships Pilot, see below) versus weatherization alone. The third year follow-up found that the education group had saved 20.1 percent, compared with 12.6 percent for the weatherization group.
Harrigan, Merrilee and Alliance to Save Energy, 1992. Evaluating the Benefits of Comprehensive Energy Management for Low-Income, Payment-Troubled, Customers: Final Report on the Niagara Mohawk Power Partnerships Pilot. Final compilation on New York's comprehensive low-income weatherization pilot project that field-tested weatherization, energy education and money management components compared to weatherization alone.
Hruska, Jack, and Consumer Energy Efficiency Education Task Force of Washington State. Consumer Conservation Education Guidebook, 1991. A communications tool using pictures, graphs, charts to help consumers understand energy efficiency concepts.
Hruska, Jack, and Consumer Energy Efficiency Education Task Force of Washington State. Tomorrow's Energy Begins at Home: A Step-By-Step Guide for Developing and Delivering Consumer Energy Efficiency Education, 1995. Uses detailed graphical descriptions that cover each step in starting an education program and describes four delivery methods as well as follow-up procedures. Includes examples of client and agency commitments.
Iowa East Central T.R.A.I.N. Weatherization Program, Iowa Client Education Pilot Project Final Report, October 1993. Summarizes savings from a weatherization only group and a weatherization plus client education group; used as a model for statewide program.
Lent, Tom. "Cutting Cool Watts: Helping Low-Income Philadelphians Reduce Non-Heating Electricity Use," 1988 ACEEE Summer Study of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Review the Energy Coordinating Agency of Philadelphia's pilot project that educated low-income households to help them reduce electric usage.
Lent, Tom. "Improving the Weatherization Assistance Program Through Home Visit Education," Proceedings of the 1987 Conference on Energy Conservation Program Evaluation. Discusses the results of a pilot project conducted by the Philadelphia Energy Coordinating Agency during the winter of 1985-1986 that tested the effectiveness of a educational home visit to households who received weatherization.
Michigan Public Service Commission. "The Michigan Low-Income Weatherization Energy Education and Incentives Program," 1989 Energy Program Evaluation Conference, Chicago. Presents the findings of a pilot program that was designed to examine the effects of a combined energy education and financial incentive program on gas usage in low-income households.
Milwaukee Opportunities Industrialization Center. Milwaukee Energy Education Project. From a 1993 conference presentation, a notebook of forms, checklists, questionnaires and methods of education that comprise the Milwaukee OIC program.
Northern States Power Company and the Energy Collaborative. Partners in Energy Savings: Final Report and Evaluation, 1989. Discusses the 1988 program's process, costs and impacts, recommends methods to address nonpayment of utility bills by the poor.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory for U.S. DOE. Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program Network, 1992, provides summaries of surveys of state and local weatherization agencies regarding staffing, measures, number and type of households weatherized, including numerous questions on client education programs.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory for U.S. DOE. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Single-Family and Small Multifamily Dwellings, 1993, includes some analysis of savings from client education components. This and the previous report are from the three-year (1991-93) national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program conducted by ORNL for U.S. DOE.
Oregon State Community Services. Chronic Arrearages Project Final Report, 1990. An overview of the case management project conducted by a group of state, university, and local energy assistance agencies. Components included budget payment plans, financial counseling, weatherization, energy education, and cash assistance.
Patullo, Chip, and Gerace, Ann Jones. Multifamily Tenant Education. From a 1993 presentation at Affordable Comfort VII. Presents proven techniques to teach multifamily apartment residents energy efficiency, includes sample resident survey.
Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission and Penn State University. Pennsylvania's Regulated Utilities Low-Income Usage Reduction Program, presented at the Utilities and Public Policy Conference August, 1993. Reveals the results of program evaluations for 1989 and 1990 in which 15 utilities weatherized 66,000 low-income homes. Cites participant and household characteristics, housing stock, client education program characteristics, and energy savings.
Penn Sate University, Consumer Services Information System. Results of the 1993 Penn State Survey of the LIURP Conservation Education Survey. Surveyed managers of seven participating gas and eight electric companies, plus 62 contracted education providers regarding their Low Income Usage Reduction Program conservation education components during 1990 and 1991. Questions on timing, content, delivery methods and savings for each company's education program; also asked about effectiveness of program components, and how Laura's educational component might be improved.
Philadelphia Gas Works and the Energy Coordinating Agency. "Energy Conservation Weatherization Programs: Philadelphia Gas Works, 1977 to Present," 1993. Describes four components of PG. residential energy conservation since 1977: education, marketing, services, and financing, at a cost of $16 million and serving 58,000 units.
Quaid, Maureen. "Low-Income Energy Education Programs: A Review of Evaluation Results and Methods," 1990 ACEEE Summer Study of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Reviews several evaluations of low-income energy education programs and recommends evaluation strategies that may help identify the most effective educational approaches.
Quaid, Maureen, and Faber, R.A. "An Evaluation of Coordinated Energy Services: A Comprehensive Low-Income Conservation Program (Project CHOICE)," 1988. A joint research project of Minnegasco and Minneapolis Energy Office. An overview of Project CHOICE, designed to reduce utility arrearages and energy usage of low-income clients and enhance coordination among agencies involved with low-income energy issues.
Quaid, Maureen, Dunsworth, T. and Hewett, M. "An Evaluation of the Community Energy Workshop: An Energy Conservation Pilot Program for Low-Income Households." From proceedings of the 1987 Conference on Energy Conservation Program Evaluation. Analyzes the results of the Community Energy Workshop in Minneapolis. Discusses education on energy use habits presented by neighborhood-oriented workshops, low-cost weatherization measures, and major weatherization work offered through the Minneapolis Energy office and financed with zero-interest deferred loans. One of the goals of the workshop was to help households better manage energy bills; the report discusses why the program often failed to achieve this.
Reynolds, Nancy. Local Energy Partnership Program with Blue Mountain Action Council: Final Report. A project conducted by the Blue Mountain Action Council in Walla, Walla, Washington, in which one group of 146 households were taught do-it-yourself conservation strategies and behaviors, and a second group of 96 households received weatherization and energy education. Both groups received one in-home visit and two small group sessions. Pre and post education consumption data was compared, indicating that both groups experienced energy savings in the range of 10-12 percent. The report contains a detailed description of the content of each education session, a section that examines the program and several case studies of participating households.
Selvaggio, Marialena. Energy Conservation Education and the Low-Income Consumer: A Study of Education Approaches and Energy Savings in Pennsylvania, Master of Science Degree thesis. 1993. Examined about 1,500 low income gas customers who had received weatherization and client education. Households were divided into categories of low, medium and high intensity education; results indicated that the high intensity education program had a small but significant positive effect on the percent of energy saved when compared with low and medium intensity. Includes a detailed regression analysis of data and descriptions of the structure and content of the three education programs.
U. S. Department of Energy, State Projects Notebook: Client Education Support for WAP, June 1993 (updates a 1988 version). Summary of state client education programs in 1992, including types of printed material, multimedia material, presentations used, and contact persons. Intended to encourage state networking and sharing of client education activities. Includes diskettes of the WAP Client Education Data Base.
XENERGY, Inc. Final Report: Detroit Edison's Low Income Customer Project, October 1993. Describes three low-income electric usage reduction programs that included client education; describes market research, program marketing, electric use and bill payment analysis, etc.
Yakima Valley OIC. Yakima Valley O.I.C.'s H.A.P.P.Y. H.O.M.E.S. Weatherization Program, 1990. Notebook describing a public/private partnership between local utilities, state and local agencies, and low income clients that included conservation, money management, client education and weatherization services. Contains forms, handouts, worksheets, and program guidelines and recommended measures (in English and Spanish).
American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Proceedings, ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Semi-annual conference. Eleven volumes of technical papers and project summaries and one index. Some low-income oriented papers include evaluations of various measures such as heating, lighting, retrofits, multi-family and single family programs, energy education. For a list of papers, contact the Clearinghouse.
National Consumer Law Center. Presents an annual low income energy conference with proceedings. Conference presentations include such topics as energy assurance programs, percentage of income payment plans, DSM programs, public and private investment in energy efficiency, and summaries of regulatory rulings on low income programs. For a list of papers, contact the Clearinghouse.
Energy Program Evaluation Conference, Chicago, IL. Semi-annual conference whose proceedings report on innovative programs in various states, including low-income weatherization. For a list of papers, contact the Clearinghouse.
Part Two: Case Management
Bruner, Charles and Berryhill, Megan. Making Welfare Work: A Family Approach, 1992. An assessment of Iowa's Family Development and Self-Sufficiency Demonstration Grant Program. Excerpts available from the Clearinghouse, for a complete copy available from Child and Family Policy Center, 100 Court Avenue, Ste. 312, Des Moines, IA 50309; (515) 280-9027.
Gallup Organization for SRI Institute, End-of-Project Evaluation Report, Lincoln Action Program, Demonstration Partnership Program, March 1993. Evaluates a two-year project that provided in-home case management as part of the Jobs Opportunity and Basic Skills program in Nebraska. While the project was designed to provide welfare recipients with support services and job seeking skills, the concepts and approaches are considered applicable to many programs. Available from Lincoln Action Program, Inc., 2202 S. 11th Street, Lincoln, N# 68502; (402) 471-4515.
Herr, Toby, and Halpern, Robert. Changing What Counts: Rethinking the Journey Out of Welfare, 1991. Publications Dept., Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University, 2040 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL; 60208-4100; (708) 491-3395.
Institute for Social and Economic Development. "Final Evaluation Report of MICA/DHS Demonstration Partnership Program," 1991. Includes an overview, outcome evaluation, process evaluation, study population and comparison population of this family development project for AFDC families.
McAtee, Arlene. Family Development: Empowering Families to Move out of Poverty. Provides a description of five-step Family Development process and suggestion for putting the process into practice. Available from Mid-Iowa Community Action, Inc., or Institute for Family Support and Development of MICA, Inc., 212 West Ingledue, Marshalltown, IA; (515)752-7162.
Millar, Rhona, and Millar Anne, eds. Developing Client Outcome Monitoring Systems. The Urban Institute, 2100 M. St. NW, Washington, DC 20037; (202) 857-8709.
Ohio Center for Family Development. Family Development: A Response to Reducing Dependency and Poverty in Ohio. A progress report, program descriptions and recommendations for a program that operated in Ohio in 1988-1991.
Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, Bureau of Consumer Services. "CARES Report, July 1994." An overview of the Customer Assistance and Referral Evaluation Service (CARES) programs of the state's major gas and electric utilities. The programs use a case management approach in assisting customers with special needs. Contains program characteristics and recommendations of the PUC to improve existing programs.
Stokes, Gary: Human Development: Building the CAA Staff and Board. Offers strategies for creating organizational structures that support developmental human service programs. Available from Mid-Iowa Community Action, Inc., or Institute for Family Support and Development of MICA, Inc., 212 West Ingledue, Marshalltown, IA; (515) 752-7162.